The Entomological Society of Washington published, in book form, the Revision of Anoplophora (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) authored by Steven W. Lingafelter and E. Richard Hoebeke (2002). Here, they studied the known 36 different species of this Asian genus as well as introduced several changes by way of new synonymies and combinations. For the purposes of this post, I will only focus on the Philippines species cited of which, there are 6 species listed:
- Anoplophora lucipor lucipor NEWMAN, 1842
- Anoplophora lucipor lumawigi HUDEPOHL, 1989 syn. nov.
- Anoplophora mamaua SCHULTZE, 1923
- Anoplophora tianaca SCHULTZE, 1923
- Anoplophora asuanga SCHULTZE, 1923
- Anoplophora chinensis FORSTER, 1771
- Anoplophora davidis FAIRMAIRE, 1886
A. lucipor, A. mamaua, A. tianaca and A. asuanga are Philippine endemics and are found in major islands. Generally, the elytral markings consists of round white or yellowish patches of pubescence varying in density and size depending on the species. However, it was indicated in the paper that these are almost related to each other that if there is a good number of specimens to form a series, the taxonomy of the Philippine Anoplophora might be clearly addressed.
The authors synonymized a subspecies described by Hudepohl in 1989. Except for A. lucipor, the other 3 species were named by Schultze based from three nocturnal folklore creatures which are regarded as minions of the devil: mamaw, tianak and asuang. Unfortunately, the type specimens that were kept at the Bureau of Science in Manila were totally destroyed in WWII with all of Schultze’s types gone forever.
A. chinensis and A. davidis are not native to the country but were included by the authors as these were reported to have been found here. These two species might have been probably introduced via wooden crates used in transporting Chinese goods. I’m not sure if currently, this has established a foothold.
In the second part of Francesco Vitali’s email (first part here) that I received a few weeks ago, he clarified that the Philippine species of Euryphagus (Cerambycinae Trachyderini = Stenaspini = Purpuricenini) is E. pictus VOET 1778. As for E. maxillosus OLIVIER 1795 is a preoccupied name while E. nigricollis HELLER 1913 is said to be a variety.
Francesco then provided the following:
Genus Euryphagus THOMSON 1864
= Eurycephalus LAPORTE DE CASTELNAU 1840 nec GRAY 1831
pictus (VOET, 1778)
= maxillosus (OLIVIER, 1795)
pictus var. nigricollis HELLER, 1913
It should be noted that the species’ black marking on the prothorax as well as the end of the elytra is very variable and thus might confuse entomologists. Found from Luzon to Mindanao, sizes are also very variable. Photo above shows the male (left) and female (right).
A few weeks ago, I received an email from Francesco Vitali, an Italian entomologist based in Italy who works on the family Ceramycidae and has been in touch with me from time to time. He is studying the cerambycid species of the genus Cacia of the tribe Mesosini. From his remarks, he identified three of my Cacia sp. found at the gallery. The species are, right to left, photo above:
- Cacia (Ipocregyes) imogenae HUDEPOHL 1989
- Cacia (Ipocregyes) butuana HELLER 1923
- Cacia (Ipocregyes) vermiculata mindanaonis BREUNING 1980
He has some doubts, however, regarding the exact placement of C. butuana HELLER 1923 since he indicated that Breuning, a towering figure in the study of Cerambycidae, placed this species (and C. inculta) in the subgenus Cacia and Corethrophora. Of the 12 species that I have in the gallery, all from Mindanao, these are the only ones that have been identified.
This species is found throughout the country except Palawan and perhaps, the Sulu Archipelago. Outside of the Philippines, it is present in Celebes in Indonesia, all the way to Taiwan and then to Japan where it is restricted to the Ryuku Island Group. Looking at the distribution map, the areas where this can be found is fascinating as it outlines an arc but skipping Sundaland.
Chrysodema jucunda LAPORTE & GORY 1835 is the third Chrysodema species that I have correctly identified. However, like the rest of the members of the genus, there are certain color as well as elytral pattern variations. Lander, in his Chrysodema paper listed seven (7) synonyms.
This species is widely distributed in the country and is also found in Borneo.